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Abbreviation, signs of abbreviation
They are signs which ease both writing and interpreting music language. They are:
  1. Refrain
    Its symbol is formed by two lateral dots towards a double slash and indicates the repetition of the part of the text contained within both signs:
    Abbreviation refrain
    We often find, along with the second refrain symbol, some bars marked with the numbers 1 and 2. This means the bar marked with the number 1 must be executed only once. In repeating the refrain it will be skipped up and you will proceed with the bar marked with the number 2:
    Abbreviation refrain 2
  2. Da Capo (abbreviated in D.C.).
    It is needed to repeat the text from its beginning as far as the word "End".
    There exist further repetition symbols that may be located anywhere in the text. As follows, you find some examples on the likely use of these symbols:
    From image toimage From to End From D.C. toimage From D.S. toimage
    The symbol D.S. indicates the word "Dal Segno" ("From the sign").
  3. Signs of repetition.
    They indicate the repetition of:
    • a note of the scale or a group of notes:
      Note repetition
    • a whole measure:
      Measure repetition
    • two measures:
      Two Measures repetition
  4. Separation lines.
    They are transversal lines, as similar as travatures, located either below a note or between two figures which we want to repeat as separated.
    Here are some examples:

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