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The turn is made up by the figuration of five notes which include, as well as the note the ornament is situated on, the note with the upper joined grade and the lower grade note than the note itself. Its execution is brilliant and usually instrumental.
The turn is symbolized through an "S" which is rounded by ninety degrees and indicates, according to its position, the melody route of the notes which comprise the ornament.
Example of a direct turn and of a upside-down turn:
Turn example 1
If the auxiliary notes in the turn are altered, the alteration sign is located above or below the ornament in order to indicate the upper or lower note, respectively:
Turn example 2
The turn has two execution ways that depend on the position of the sign:
  1. If the sign is above the note, the turn is executed on the bit and the first note receives the strong accent.
    Example of direct turn:
    Turn example 3
    Example of upside-down turn (1)
    Turn example 4
  2. If the symbol is situated between two notes, the ornament is executed on the weak part of the tempo.
    Example of direct turn:
    Turn example 5
    The upside-down turn can be even indicated with the symbol: Dot
    Example of upside-down turn:
    Turn example 6
Turn on a chord:
Turn example 7
On a dotted note:
Turn example 8
Turn example 9

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